Man is a social animal.
B. Spinosa (1632-1677).
This is a
commentary on the Parade magazine article “Are Men
Smarter Than Women?” published July 17, 2005 by Marilyn
vos Savant in Parade "Ask Marilyn" section).
that her answer to this question is “No”. Or even if there
are some differences between genders in terms of
intelligence they can not be correctly measured. And if we
can not tell, one can assume that they are equal. And how is she
explaining the fact that there is definite gender disparity
in science? Well, women are “…handicapped by their
upbringing” or just not attracted by boring scientific
problems. This can be right but it is just part of the
problem and still does not explain why they are handicapped
or bored. One can argue that women should not be bored by
literature or peace problems. Still they hold only 10% of
Nobel Prizes in those fields (Nobel Prize Internet Archive).
(psychological or social) explanations are limited to humans
only and can not explain this phenomenon, which is
much wider and applies to plants and animals as well. The
roots of human sex differences are biological and should
be explained on that level. It’s hard to understand social
and psychological differences between genders without
knowing their biological roles. We know that females are
needed for reproduction. But what males are for? It is
known, that many species do not have males and survive
successfully. It is known, also, that the male sex was
created as a modification or variation of a basic female
economical and do not create things without purpose. Here,
however we see half of the male population unable to produce
progeny without help of females. Compare this to
hermaphrodite species where each individual is self
sufficient. Hardly men were created similar to women with
just the exception of reproductive organs. It’s more logical
to assume that two sexes supplement each other and
specialize in some functions, which another sex performs
insufficiently well or cannot perform at all.
According to the new
evolutionary theory of sex (author Vigen
Geodakyan) these functions are two opposite aspects of
evolution—preservation and change. It should be noted that
these aspects are alternative—the more you change, the less
you can preserve and vice versa. Just as one person cannot
be short and tall at the same time. This is the reason why
living creatures have two sexes. Basic function of female
sex is to preserve the already acquired useful traits. The
male sex has another task—to change and to verify the new
traits on themselves.
In order to
accomplish this task Nature gave male sex more variety
(wider variation). If we define a trait, which most
frequently is encountered in the population as a norm, and
all the remaining deviations as different degree of
abnormality or anomaly, than it is possible to say, that
female sex is more normal almost on all traits, and male sex
is somewhat more anomalous, due to that, they spread out
more, have more imperfections. Anomaly is the feature, which
is not frequently encountered. For some reason we usually
consider only one pole abnormal, let us say, idiots.
Meanwhile geniuses are also abnormal, rarely occurring
phenomenon. In this sense they also can be consider an
anomaly. Only idiots are deviations to one side of
distribution, while geniuses—to another. Geniuses are
probably also more visible.
males is to obtain the new information from the environment.
Males are the trial material for the evolution. They are
more susceptible to natural selection and have higher
mortality from many different factors—diseases, toxins and
parasites. In this sense they are the “weak” sex. Those who
survive have all new traits and new genes. The information
stays in male subsystem by transferring from father to son
(through Y chromosome) for many generations. Only traits
that pass thorough testing will be transferred to females.
Therefore, the function of males is to try and make
mistakes, to find the necessary solutions to evolutionary
problems. Females accomplish the tasks of the selection of
men, i.e., the acceptance of successful findings. Thus,
before making the statue from marble, the sculptor makes
many versions from the clay. Nature acts the same
way—creating a large quantity of males, checking and
selecting the necessary individuals.
environmental factors influence men and women differently.
Men’s adaptability or reaction norm is lower. Therefore
during evolution the selection of men and women was going in
different directions. Females were selected based on
“adaptability” and “leaning ability”. Males were selected
based on “ingenuity”, “resourcefulness” and “creativity” in
the widest meaning of these words. For example, male and
female individuals with identical genotype will respond
differently to cold. Females can respond by building more
fat. For the males this way is closed. They, figuratively
speaking, must either perish, or invent fur, fire or
shelter. Discomfort stimulates the search.
answers a question which tasks are better suitable for men
Men prefer and better solve new problems, which can be
solved somehow (the maximal requirements to innovation and
the minimal—to perfection). Women, on the contrary, prefer
and better solve problems, which should be solved with
perfection (minimal requirements to innovation and
maximal—to perfection). In the historical (evolutionary)
plan of mastering any skill or business, whether it be the
ability to speak, skill to knit, drive the automobile, ship
or plane, it is possible to allocate two phases: an initial
phase of search, finding of the new decision, and a phase of
its fastening and perfection. Men’s advantage in the first
phase and women’s’—in the second one was revealed in special
studies. Men first mastered all professions, kinds of
sports, games, and hobby. Even knitting, in which now the
monopoly of women is not questioned, was invented by men
(Italy, XIII century). For several centuries it was solely
man's business. These psychological differences are the
reason why there are so many men amongst the composers,
inventors, designers, engineers and scientists.