Theory of Asynchronous Evolution


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Notability, Citations

Just a fraction of the materials and publications available are listed below.

Media coverage

Science magazines: First publication devoted to problems of sex differentiation has appeared in 1965 in popular scientific magazine Nauka I Zizn ("Science and Life"). This magazine had hundreds of thousands of subscribers, therefore this publication is still widely remembered. Since then more than 150 articles were published covering different aspects of sex related questions—longevity, differentiation of a brain and hands, sex chromosomes, mechanisms of sex ratio regulation at plants and animals, heart diseases and other illnesses.

Presentations: V. Geodakian made presentations on many Russian and international congresses, conferences and symposiums, lectured hundreds of students. Two conferences were devoted to the theory exclusively (Saint Petersburg, Russia, 1990, 1992).

Newspaper and magazine articles: The theory was covered in numerous newspaper and magazine articles (see Bibliography).

Television. Two interviews on Russian National Television.

Internet. Article from “Priroda” (English translation). Study programs and materials for students. Official Web site (2006). search on:
В. Геодакян, V. Geodakian, V. Geodakyan, or V. Geodakjan search on:
В. Геодакян

In the US: V. Geodakian made3 presentations at the congress and gave 2 interviews that were printed by L. Rahlis in “Russia House”, a newspaper for the Russian community in Atlanta, GA (1998).

In Germany: 1965 article printed (1972).

In Japan: presentation at 12th ICG (1968).

Textbooks and study programs. The theory was included in the textbooks (G. S. Vasiltchenko, 1977, 2005; S. K. Nartova-Boshaver 2003, N. Ikonnikova, 1999) and also is included in study programs of some Russian (Physical-Technical College, Moscow College of Physical Engineers, Russian Humanitarian State University) and foreign (Kharkov national university (Ukraine), Tel-Aviv University) colleges and universities.

Notability, recognition in the scientific community,
citations, works of other scientists

Negative feedback hypothesis. To confirm negative feedback hypothesis the experiments were conducted by V. Kosobutsky (1969, 1979), Bileva, Luchnikova, Petrova (1972), and B. Kasatkin.

S. Geodakyan (1985) reviewed data published by other scientists including such classical works as papers of Correns on plants and Hertwig on frogs. The negative feedback concept was confirmed in direct experiments on at least 3 species: 1 plant and 2 animal ones. It was also confirmed that many plant, and animal species including humans have necessary mechanisms for feedback existence (4 plant species from 3 families, and 16 animal species from 11 families).

Later V. Iskrin (2001,2003) introduced some mathematical parameters to describe sex ratio effects and extended the hypothesis to explain sex ratio deviations under catastrophic conditions. In his reasoning he accepts most of the statements of the Geodakyan theory.

Boris D. Lubachevsky was promoting the theory since 1990s. He translated Theory of Sex (article from “Priroda” into English and made it available on the Internet. He later published a review of Iskrin’s additions to the negative feedback concept.

Advantages of sexual reproduction: Hypothesis of more efficient selection. “…was first noted by Geodakyan (1965, p. 106) who concluded that ‘the advantages of sexual reproduction with two different sexes are not limited to genetic heterogeneity of the progeny.’” A. S. Kondrashov (1993, p. 374)

“Phylogenetic rule of sexual dimorphism”. Smirnov (1968) (specialist on lower Crustacean) conducted studies that confirmed the “phylogenetic rule of sexual dimorphism” (173 species of lower Crustacean).

Pathology. Theory was used to predict nature of congenital heart defects. Data collected by surgeon-cardiologist A. Sherman (32,000 cases) confirmed the predicted relationship and allowed to propose sex of a patient as a diagnostic symptom.

Later P. M. Raevski and A. L. Sherman (1976) extended the analysis on malignant tumors. They have shown, that phylogenetically younger organs or systems of organs have higher values of sexual dimorphism (higher incidence of tumors in males) compare to old ones. For example, such phylogenetically young formations as lungs, larynx, tong and esophagus had the greatest sexual dimorphism values. On the contrary, negative sexual dimorphism values were characteristic for the reproductive system and thyroid glands. Organs and tissues that are in contact with environment have higher values of sexual dimorphism. Based on “phylogenetic rule of sexual dimorphism” authors have predicted, that lung cancer incidents will grow, while stomach cancer will decrease, because the sexual dimorphism is increasing in the first case, and decreasing in the second case.


Theory was used and discussed in articles and books of several Russian psychologists:

B. Bagrunov attempted to apply theory of sex to professional development, education, and sport.

I. S. Kon


E. P. Ilyin

S. K. Nartova-Boshaver (2003)

Asmolov A.G. Vygotsky today: on the verge of non-classical psychology. Nova Science Publishers, 1998, p. 48.

Education. Differences between sexes in cognition and learning are long known. Scientists and education specialists still argue which way of learning is the best – separate or mixed class arrangement. Theory provides basis and explanation of psychological differences and tells how to organize study programs. Recent attempts to go back to separate education showed encouraging results (M. Gurian in the US).


I.S. Kon and later Kleyn included Geodakian concept in the explanation of homosexuality.

Gerontology. L. Gavrilov and N. Gavrilova (both gerontologists) have analyzed parts of Geodakyan theory dealing with longevity, and differential mortality of sexes. They argue that high mortality of males (one of the theory’s building blocks) is not always the case and each species may have specific factors affecting longevity and difference between sexes. [Theory uses a vast majority of existing facts from many branches of science (biology, pharmacology, toxicology, pathology, etc) for many species and all levels of organization (from cells to organs and organisms)]

They claim that contrary to theory’s prediction women are champions in longevity [Гаврилов, 1985] and that mortality among women is decreasing more rapidly compare to men [Gavrilov, Nosov, 1985].

Brain asymmetry. In 1995 Simonov P. V. and Rusalova M. N. discovered that active centers of the reflexes move from front of the left hemisphere to the front of the right hemisphere and to the back of the right hemisphere. They write: “Geodakian law is equally valid for phylo- and Ontogeny”.

D. Kimura (1992) discovered that in women aphasia and apraxia more often result from patholological changes of the anterior parts of the left hemisphere, while in men, they result from pathologies of its posterior part. She was not able to explain why.


Vasiltshenko G. S. (Ed.) (1977) General sexopathology. Physicians guide. Moscow, Medicine 488 p.
Vasiltshenko G. S. (2005) General sexopathology. Physicians guide. Moscow, Medicine 2nd edition 512 p. ISBN 5-225-04820-Х
Nartova-Boschaver S. K. (2003) Differential psychology: Textbook. Moscow. Flinta Moscow psychological-social institute.

Study programs


Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology. Department of Molecular and Biological Physics. Lectures for the 1st grade “Biology basics”. Lecture #24 “Evolutionary Theory of Sex. Biotechnology. Immunology. Signal transmission in the body.”

Natalia Nesterova Moscow Education Academy. < >
Faculty of practical psychology. Special courses: “The Evolutionary Theory of Sex” (
3rd course 36 h.). “The Evolutionary Theory of Brain Asymmetry” (5th course 32 h.). Author: V.A. Geodakian.

Tomsk State University. Faculty of Radiophysics. Department of Quantum Electronics and Photonics. Course: «Optical synergetics» Author: Prof. B.N. Pojzner (PhD) (Geodakian’s principle of Conjugated Subsystems. Sexual dimorphism and gender aspects of behavior from the V.A. Geodakian’s principle point of view.)


Kharkov National University
1. Faculty of psychology. Department of general psychology. E.F. Ivanova. Subject “Differential psychology”. Cycle of lectures “Gender studies in psychology” Lecture #11. Studies of gender differences in brain organization and cognition. [from 2006]

2. Kharkov Center of Gender Studies. Author: Lutsenko E.A. Subject “Gender Socialization”. Lecture N 3. “Concepts of sexual differentiation” (2nd year).


  1. L.A. Gavrilov and N.S. Gavrilova “Biology of the life span.” Chapter 5.4. Analysis of sex differences in life span.

  2. Geodakyan V. A., Sherman A. L. (1970). “Eksperimental’naja hirurgija i anesteziologija (Experimental surgery and anesthesiology) ” 32 N 2, 18–23.

  3. Geodakyan V. A., Sherman A. L. (1971). Svjaz' vrozdennych anomalij razvitija s polom (Relation of congenital anomalies with the development of sex). “Zh. Obsh. Biol.” 32 N 4, 417–424.

  4. Gordon A. (2002) Evolutionary theory of sex. “Program «00:30»” NTV, June 06.

  5. Gordon A. (2002) Evolutionary theory of sex-2. “Program «00:30»” NTV, Apr 15.

  6. Gordon A. (2003) Theory of brain asymmetry. “Program «00:30»” NTV, Dec 09.

  7. E. P. Ilyin Differential Psychophysiology of man and woman. Ch. 1 Biological aspects of sex differentiation. 1.2 Biological goal of two sexes existence in nature.

  8. Iskrin V. (2001) “Dialektika polov”

  9. Iskrin V. (2003) Catastrophisheskaja polovaja proportsija (Catastrophic sex ratio) Nauka I Zizn ("Science and Life"), №11.

  10.  Kleyn Ch. V. Roots of homosexuality: Biological basis. 9. Malfunction of imprinting and Adam’s principle.

  11. Kon I. S.

  12. Kondrashov A.S. Classification of Hypotheses on the Advantage of Amphimixis. J. of Heredity, 1993, 84, 372-387.

  13. B. D. Lubachevsky (2007) Theory of sexes by Geodakian as it is advanced by Iskrin.

  14. Raevski P. M., Sherman A. L. (1976). Significance of sex in epidemiology of cancer (systemic-evolutionary approach). In: Mathematical treatment of medical-biological information. Moscow, Nauka, p. 170–181.

  15. Rahlis L. (1998) Why God created Adam and Eve? Russia House (Atlanta, GA), September N 9 (68), 4.

  16. Rahlis L. (1999) Supplementing each other. Russia House (Atlanta, GA), February N 2 (73) 5.

  17.  Simonov P.V. e.a. (1995) Zurn. Vishej nervnoj dejatelnosti. (J. of High Nervous Activity), v. 45, 1, p. 13-17.



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